Professor Garma C.C. Chang

Karma is essentially a doctrine of the intricate reciprocation between forces and actions that push forward the turning wheel of samsara. When expressed on a cosmological scale this force-action complex is a stupendous power that propels the universe and life; when expressed in the ethical sense, it is an unfailing, impersonal law that effectuates the moral order, “dispensing” natural rewards and retributions. Metaphysically, karma is a creative energy brought forth by the collective actions of certain groups; it sustains the order and function of a particular universe in which those groups reside…